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Статьи - Администиррование FreeBSD

Причины требующие сборки нового ядра
• изменение функциональности ядра
• наложение заплаток безопасности на ядро
• уменьшение размера ядра
• повышение производительности
Резервное копирование старого ядра
[hostX:~] # cd /boot
[hostX:/boot] # cp r
kernel/ kernel.generic/
Сбор сведений об оборудовании
[hostX:~] # dmesg
[hostX:~] # pciconf lv
Установка исходных текстов ядра
[hostX:~] # mkdir /usr/src
[hostX:~] # mount /cdrom
[hostX:~] # cd /cdrom/XRELEASE/
src/
[hostX:/cdrom/XRELEASE/
src] # ./install.sh base sys
Extracting sources into /usr/src...
Extracting source component: base
Extracting source component: sys
Done extracting sources.
[hostX:/cdrom/XRELEASE/
src] # cd
[hostX:~] # umount /cdrom/
Обновление исходных текстов ядра
[hostX:~] # freebsdupdate
fetch
[hostX:~] # freebsdupdate
install
Создание файла конфигурации ядра
Задача - уменьшить размер ядра
[hostX:~] # cd /usr/src/sys/i386/conf/
[hostX:sys/i386/conf] # cp GENERIC KERN
[hostX:sys/i386/conf] # ee KERN
69
[hostX:sys/i386/conf] # sed E
'/#.*device/d' KERN
# cpu I486_CPU
# cpu I586_CPU
cpu I686_CPU
ident KERN
makeoptions DEBUG=g
# Build kernel with gdb(1)
debug symbols
options SCHED_ULE # ULE scheduler
options PREEMPTION # Enable kernel thread
preemption
options INET # InterNETworking
# options INET6 # IPv6 communications
protocols
options SCTP # Stream Control
Transmission Protocol
options FFS # Berkeley Fast Filesystem
options SOFTUPDATES # Enable FFS soft updates
support
options UFS_ACL # Support for access
control lists
options UFS_DIRHASH # Improve performance on
big directories
options UFS_GJOURNAL # Enable gjournalbased
UFS journaling
options NFSCLIENT # Network Filesystem
Client
options NFSSERVER # Network Filesystem
Server
options NFSLOCKD # Network Lock Manager
options NFS_ROOT # NFS usable as /,
requires NFSCLIENT
options MSDOSFS # MSDOS Filesystem
options CD9660 # ISO 9660 Filesystem
options PROCFS # Process filesystem
(requires PSEUDOFS)
options PSEUDOFS # Pseudofilesystem
framework
options GEOM_PART_GPT # GUID Partition Tables.
options GEOM_LABEL # Provides labelization
options COMPAT_43TTY # BSD 4.3 TTY compat [KEEP
THIS!]
options COMPAT_FREEBSD4 # Compatible with FreeBSD4
options COMPAT_FREEBSD5 # Compatible with FreeBSD5
options COMPAT_FREEBSD6 # Compatible with FreeBSD6
options SCSI_DELAY=5000 # Delay (in ms) before
probing SCSI
70
options KTRACE # ktrace(1) support
options STACK # stack(9) support
options SYSVSHM # SYSVstyle
shared memory
options SYSVMSG # SYSVstyle
message
queues
options SYSVSEM # SYSVstyle
semaphores
options _KPOSIX_PRIORITY_SCHEDULING # POSIX P1003_1B realtime
extensions
options KBD_INSTALL_CDEV # install a CDEV entry
in /dev
options ADAPTIVE_GIANT # Giant mutex is adaptive.
options STOP_NMI # Stop CPUS using NMI
instead of IPI
options AUDIT # Security event auditing
#options KDTRACE_HOOKS # Kernel DTrace hooks
# To make an SMP kernel, the next two lines are needed
options SMP # Symmetric MultiProcessor
Kernel
device apic # I/O APIC
# CPU frequency control
device cpufreq
# Bus support.
device pci
# Floppy drives
device fdc
device ata
device atadisk # ATA disk drives
device atapicd # ATAPI CDROM drives
device atapist # ATAPI tape drives
# SCSI Controllers
# options AHC_REG_PRETTY_PRINT # Print register bitfields
in debug
# output. Adds ~128k to
driver.
# options AHD_REG_PRETTY_PRINT # Print register bitfields
in debug
# output. Adds ~215k to
driver.
# SCSI peripherals
device scbus # SCSI bus (required for SCSI)
device da # Direct Access (disks)
71
# RAID controllers interfaced to the SCSI subsystem
# RAID controllers
# atkbdc0 controls both the keyboard and the PS/2 mouse
device atkbdc # AT keyboard controller
device atkbd # AT keyboard
device psm # PS/2 mouse
device kbdmux # keyboard multiplexer
device vga # VGA video card driver
device splash # Splash screen and screen saver
support
# syscons is the default console driver, resembling an SCO console
device sc
device agp # support several AGP chipsets
# Power management support (see NOTES for more options)
# Add suspend/resume support for the i8254.
device pmtimer
# PCCARD (PCMCIA) support
# PCMCIA and cardbus bridge support
# Serial (COM) ports
device sio # 8250, 16[45]50 based serial
ports
device uart # Generic UART driver
# Parallel port
device ppc
device ppbus # Parallel port bus (required)
device lpt # Printer
# If you've got a "dumb" serial or parallel PCI card that is
# supported by the puc(4) glue driver, uncomment the following
# line to enable it (connects to sio, uart and/or ppc drivers):
# PCI Ethernet NICs.
# PCI Ethernet NICs that use the common MII bus controller code.
device miibus # MII bus support
device fxp # Intel EtherExpress PRO/100B
(82557, 82558)
72
# ISA Ethernet NICs. pccard NICs included.
# Wireless NIC cards
device loop # Network loopback
device ether # Ethernet support
device ppp # Kernel PPP
device tun # Packet tunnel.
device pty # Pseudottys
(telnet etc)
device md # Memory "disks"
device gif # IPv6 and IPv4 tunneling
device firmware # firmware assist module
# Be aware of the administrative consequences of enabling this!
# Note that 'bpf' is required for DHCP.
device bpf # Berkeley packet filter
# USB support
device uhci # UHCI PCI>
USB interface
device ohci # OHCI PCI>
USB interface
device ehci # EHCI PCI>
USB interface (USB
2.0)
device usb # USB Bus (required)
device ugen # Generic
device ukbd # Keyboard
device umass # Disks/Mass storage Requires
scbus and da
device ums # Mouse
# USB Ethernet, requires miibus
# FireWire support
Компиляция и инсталяция ядра
[hostX:sys/i386/conf] # cd /usr/src
[hostX:/usr/src] # make buildkernel KERNCONF=KERN
[hostX:/usr/src] # make installkernel KERNCONF=KERN
[hostX:/usr/src] # shutdown –r now
[hostX:~] # uname –a
Загрузка старого ядра
В меню Loader выбираем пункт 6
OK unload kernel
OK load /boot/kernel.old/kernel
73
или
OK load /boot/kernel.generic/kernel
OK boot

 

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